1. Button Mushroom
Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is an edible mushroom, native to North America and Grassland. It comes in two color states –white and brown. Both types have various names -when this matures, it is known as portobello mushroom. And when it is immature and white, this mushroom is known as button mushroom, common mushroom, cultivated mushroom, table mushroom, crimini mushroom, and champignon mushroom. When it is immature and brown, it is known as Swiss brown mushroom, Roman brown mushroom, Italian brown mushroom, cremini/crimini mushroom, or chestnut mushroom.
2. Enokitake mushroom
The scientific name is “Flammulina velutipes”. Enokitake mushroom is the highly demanded mushroom, especially in Japan. Where it is called as “Enoki”. The form of this mushroom is long, thin and white. Enoki mushroom is mostly used for soups in east Asia cuisines. But you can also use enoki mushroom in salads. Golden needle mushroom, futu mushroom, and lily mushroom is also another name of enoki mushroom.
3. Shiitake Mushroom
The scientific name of shiitake mushroom is “Lentinus edodes”. This is an edible mushroom, native to Japan and East Asia. Shiitake mushroom is consumed in many Asian countries. Japanese consider this as a medicinal mushroom. The other names of this mushroom are “sawtooth oak mushroom”, “black forest mushroom”, “black mushroom”, “golden oak mushroom”, or “oakwood mushroom”.
4. Oyster Mushroom
The scientific name of Oyster mushroom is “Pleurotus”. This is one of the most eatable mushrooms on the earth. Oyster mushroom is also known as California mushroom, Tree mushroom, and Abalone. You can find the oyster mushroom in both climates, tropical and temperate. Oyster mushroom is mostly used for stir fry and saute in vegetable cuisines. China is the major producer of this oyster mushroom.
5. The Morel Mushroom
“Morchella” is the scientific name of this mushroom. This is an edible mushroom and mostly found in North America, Turkey, China, the Himalayas, India, and Pakistan. The morel mushroom looks like a honeycomb in the form of a cap. Usually, the morel mushroom is used for gourmet cooking and French cuisines.
6. Lion’s Mane Mushrooms
The scientific name of Lion’s mane mushroom is “Hericium erinaceus”. This is an edible mushroom belonging to the tooth fungus group native to North America, Europe, and Asia. It can be identified easily by its long spines. It plays a large part in Chinese cuisines. These mushrooms taste pretty good and have a very intense meaty flavor. The other names of this mushroom are “Monkey head mushroom”, “bearded tooth mushroom”, and “pom-pom mushroom”.
7. Paddy Straw Mushroom
Paddy straw mushroom is also called straw mushroom and it is a species of edible mushroom, cultivated throughout East and South-East Asia. This mushroom is mostly used in Asian cuisines. The scientific name of paddy mushroom is “Volvariella volvacea”. This mushroom is found in all over Asia. The straw mushroom can be grown on a variety of agricultural wastes e.g. water hyacinth, banana, oil palm, paddy straw, cotton or wood waste. China, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, India, Madagascar are countries with highest consumption of mushroom.
8. Porcini Mushroom
Porcini mushroom, known by various names like penny bun, porcino, and Cep. “Boletus edulis” is the scientific name. This is the most popular mushroom used for the culinary purpose.
This mushroom has a mild nutty flavor with an intense aroma. You can purchase this mushroom from the market in a fresh and dried form. This is popular in Italy as well as in France where it is called cèpes. By appearance, this looks like slightly reddish-brown in color.
9. Beech Mushroom
Beech mushroom is an edible mushroom native to East Asian countries. Most often this mushroom is found on beech trees. That’s why the common name is Beech Mushroom. They are small and thin in appearance and popular across the world. In Europe, North America and Australia they are cultivated in the temperate climate and sold fresh in supermarkets. It is mostly used in soup, stew, and sauces. It has slightly crunchy texture and nutty flavor. The scientific name of this mushroom is “Hypsizygus tessellatus”.
10. Shaggy Ink Cap Mushroom
“Coprinus comatus” is a scientific name of this mushroom. It is also called as “shaggy ink cap mushroom” and “lawyer’s wig”. This mushroom is commonly seen growing roadside, waste areas and lawn. You can recognise this mushroom. The body first appears as a white cylinder shape from the ground. Then, bell-shape cap opens out. The cap is white and covered with scales. This mushroom is mostly used for “mushroom soups” and sometimes for “risotto”. This mushroom is cultivated in China as a food.